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"We will capture Leningrad or my name is mired!"

"We will capture Leningrad or my name is mired!"

Posted by Kevin Roust on Dec 26th 2018

"We Will Capture Leningrad or My Name is Mired!"

Cracking Cities in Thunder in the East

by Kevin Roust

The City hexes dotting the maps of Frank Chadwick’s ETO are more than mere decorative geographic anchor points. In game terms, they are HQ locations, air bases, rail junctions, ports, mobilization and reorganization sites, and sometimes economic and political centers. Even those not marked as Objective hexes are, at least, operational objectives, since capturing them smooths the way for your forces, thus making your warfighting in their vicinity a bit easier. Players must remain vigilant of where the next city is located and what is required to take or hold it in the on-map cut-and-thrust of ETO.

In the ETO series, we can loosely divide City hexes into four categories based on their difficulty to capture. From easiest to most difficult to conquer, they are:

1. Non-Hard cities

2. Inland Hard cities

3. National Capital cities

4. Coastal Hard cities

In this article, we will inspect each of these closer using Thunder in the East with a particular emphasis on what is required to successfully attack (and defend) those two mighty Soviet bastions: Moscow and Leningrad.


Taking It Easy

ETO Non-Hard citiesWithout a doubt, non-Hard Cities are the easiest to capture. As a terrain feature, they do not even register as speed bumps. Heavy units can attack them at full strength and they provide no intrinsic terrain defense bonus.

For those of you counting combat strengths in Thunder in the East, this means that, through each hexside attacking that non-Hard city, the Axis can send a maximum of 28 attack strength (i.e., 24 for an attacking Panzer Army + 4 for a Panzer Division stacked with it), and the Soviets can muster up to 16 (i.e., 12 for a Guards Tank Army + 4 for a Guards Tank Corps stacked with it).


Taking it Hard

ETO: Hard city

Hard” cities are not just hardened (i.e., primarily built of concrete and steel instead of brick and thatch), they are also harder to capture because it halves attacking Heavy units and the defender receives one favorable terrain shift in combat. Inland Hard cities such as Kharkov and Stalino will certainly fall when pressured if the attacker has enough time and impetus to storm their defenses.

Attacking Hard City hexes typically means relying on your non-Heavy (typically Infantry) units to carry the burden (assuming Infantry units with a hefty attack value are available). This means Infantry Army units are the right battering rams for capturing Hard cities as they allow you to push the greatest amount of attack strength through each hexside. Typically, either side can pack a maximum of around 14 attack strength points per hexside (hitting Hard cities with Infantry Army units and eschewing Heavy units).

If that city’s defender has managed to place a Hardened Garrison unit in it, this presents a problem to the attacker. Such an assault versus a Hard City hex with a Hardened Garrison unit typically proceeds in three stages:

1. Surround the city, isolating it from receiving help from the outside and trapping its defenders to leave them no safe Retreat route.

2. Attack that city with sufficient strength and support (HQ, air, airborne, and/or cards) to inflict at least a Retreat result of some type; this forces the non-Hardened Garrison units to Retreat away or, when completely surrounded, death will be the defender’s only option!

3. Finally, attack the surviving Hardened Garrison unit to force a step loss, eliminating it, and allowing you to occupy at last that Inland Hard City hex.


A Capital Idea

It takes exceptional strength and extraordinary effort to capture an opponent’s National Capital cities (i.e., Moscow, Bucharest, and Budapest). These are certainly conquerable but they are invariably strongly defended making them particularly challenging to capture (and only then when wielding exceptional strength against them).

If you are fortunate enough to reach the enemy Capital city before a Hardened Garrison unit resides there, then you only need to reach odds of 2:1 or 3:1 to capture it in combat via any Retreat result (i.e., with an AP, DR, or EX result).

However, once that Capital City hex includes a Hardened Garrison unit the situation radically changes. This is because a National Capital cannot be Isolated (as it is an Ultimate Supply Source). In addition, its defender can always build a new unit (of its nationality) there to take losses (and thus spare the Hardened Garrison from simple one-step attrition results); this means requiring at least a 5:1 attack to achieve a DE or BT combat result to eliminate both the Hardened Garrison and its newly-built sacrificial friend.

Here is an example of how the math breaks down under this typical circumstance when the Axis tries to capture Moscow:

TITE Moscow defendedFor any game starting during Operation Typhoon or later (and likely for most campaign games), Moscow is a Hard City hex with a [3] Hardened Garrison and a <2 Fortified Defense marker. Further, because Moscow is an Ultimate Supply Source, let’s assume the Soviet player will rebuild a 4-4 Guards Rifle Corps unit in Moscow each turn. Therefore, Moscow’s defense strength is 7 if surrounded (and perhaps 10-15 if not), with at least three defensive terrain shifts (and potentially four if the Axis attack is also exclusively across the city’s adjacent Minor River hexsides, which is likely). Using a 2-shift “hammer” from a nearby German Strategic HQ marker in Attack Mode, the Axis can cancel two of those defensive shifts automatically (of course, during Mud and Extreme Cold, HQs are “stressed” and the Axis hammer shrinks from sledge to jeweler’s).

If the Axis have not crossed the Moscow River and thus Moscow’s defenders enjoy a River defense shift, the Axis can attack with a maximum of 42 attack strength (from a combination of three 12-10-3 Infantry Armies and/or halved 24-16-[5] Panzer Armies in A036, A037, and A138, each with a supporting Division attacking with it). In extremis, Soviet defenders are likely to include at least a [3] Hardened Garrison, a 4-4 Guards Rifle Corps (rebuilt in Moscow), and another 3-defense unit of some sort newly formed in nearby Orekhovo. Such a full-on attack vs. this typical, battered defense generates raw odds of 4:1, reduced to 2:1 after factoring in terrain and HQ shifts. You must assume Clear weather, exceptionally successful Close Air Support (for three more pro-attacker column shifts), and a die roll of 6 for Moscow to succumb to a single blow. (Important: there is no Close Support available during Overcast, Mud, and Snow weather, so timing an attack on Moscow to the best possible weather is vital.)

If the Axis manages to cross the Moscow River, not only does the Axis avoid one defensive terrain shift, they have, more importantly, surrounded Moscow! That is huge and probably decisive. It means they can attack Moscow from opposite directions; Axis ZOCs will hinder the Retreat of any Soviet units precipitously leaving their Capital and inflict casualties on them for doing so. In addition, when physically blocking Soviet movement between Orekhovo and Moscow, that same Axis 42-strength attack now yields raw odds of 6:1 (against only the [3] Hardened Garrison and a 4-4 Guards Rifle Corps that will be left). This makes such an all-out Axis attack achieving a DE result quite possible, and successful Close Air Support (when available during Clear and Extreme Cold weather) improves the Axis’ chances to likely.


The Nightmare: Coastal Hard Cities

TITE Soviet Construction Brigades cardThe worst urban assault situation an attacker faces is capturing Coastal Hard City hexes. In Thunder in the East both Odessa and Sevastopol have NLoCs (Naval Lines of Communication) and so can rebuild a unit directly in those cities (even if cut off from overland communication). Further, naval transport can ferry in a second unit from rear areas! Thus, “bleeding them out” of these Coastal Hard cities is a nigh-impossible proposition.

As with a National Capital city, the defender can use their defense construction card to upgrade an Improved Defense marker to Fortified and a Garrison to a Hardened Garrison unit in these cities (before they are in EZOCs). Afterward, they can withstand anything short of a DE or BT result. Unlike with Moscow, however, the attacker can only approach Odessa or Sevastopol from a couple of hexsides. Wielding an attack strength of only 28, the anguish to reach even 5:1 odds against a 7 defense strength is palpable. For the Axis, attacking these cities is like punching an inflatable clown toy; you hit it and it pops right back up. So, as in history, Odessa and Sevastopol will probably only fall when the Soviet player stops defending them.


Part I: Attacking Leningrad in Principle

Leningrad is also a Coastal Hard City hex with limited access for attackers (i.e., hexsides to attack through). At least, for the attacker, it lacks a useful NLoC. Instead, it relies on an RLoC (Rail Line of Communication) through 9028 and the “Road of Life’s” OLoC (Overland Line of Communication) through 9027.

Part I of this section focuses on the pictured map excerpt, assuming that the Axis does not cut the rail line further east (e.g., by breaking out of the Valdai Hills and turning north to capture, say, Tikhvin). In Part II , we will examine in greater detail the game rules employed to attack and capture Leningrad.


On the approach to Leningrad, there are three likely lines of attack to consider:

1. A narrow attack across the Neva River from one or two hexsides.

2. A broader, two-pronged attack from Karelia and across the Neva River.

3. A long siege after cutting Leningrad off and completely isolating it.


Option 1: A narrow attack across the Neva River

Once Pushkin (8929) falls, the Axis can attack Leningrad directly (through one hexside); doing so, however, is fraught with peril. Leningrad has a [3] Hardened Garrison and a <2 Fortified Defense marker and the Soviet Baltic Fleet, in addition to being a Hard city behind a Minor River hexside. That is a very daunting defense to overcome and, with only one hexside to attack through (via Pushkin), the Axis can bring to bear no more than 14 attack strength (i.e., a 12-10-3 Infantry Army or halved Panzer Army, with a Division added). If we ignore other units that might also be part of Leningrad’s defenses for the sake of this example, that means a raw odds attack of 4:1, reduced to 1:1 by the defender’s terrain shift. Oy! Even tossing in Axis HQ hammer’s double shifts plus lucky Close Air Support shifts, the Axis might have a 1-in-12 chance of taking Leningrad outright – if it only has its Hardened Garrison residing there! Should the Soviets have any other unit(s) in Leningrad, the city will not fall in a single Battle.

The bottom line is that the Axis needs to widen the front for an attack on Leningrad.

By taking hex 9028 (the key hex southeast of Leningrad), the Axis player gains some crucial advantages in their quest to capture this ancient Russian capital:

1. They cut Leningrad’s RLoC and thus it is no longer a Soviet supply source.

2. This also forces its industry to commence relocating to Siberia.

3. It prevents Soviet units from moving across the Strait between 9128 and 9027 (as units cannot enter and exit hexes in EZOC via Major Rivers and Straits) .

4. The Axis gains a vital second hexside through which they can directly attack Leningrad.

With two hexsides, the Axis player’s narrow, cross-river attack on Leningrad can now bring to bear 28 attack strength (with two armies plus two divisions). Defending Leningrad, the Soviet player will have a [3] Hardened Garrison and, historically, the 55th Rifle Infantry Army (a 4-5-4 enjoying its 5 defense strength). In real math, that means 28 attack versus 8 defense which is a raw 3:1, reduced to 1:2 by terrain. With a German HQ 2-shift hammer, the attack improves to 3:2; employing both Axis Stukas would offset the Soviet Baltic Fleet’s red blot defensive support giving the Axis Close Support dice superiority and, hopefully, another 2 shifts, give-or-take (raising the final odds to 3:1 or so). Still, even at those odds, there is only a 2/3 chance of reducing the Soviet Army by one step, but no chance of taking Leningrad in a single Battle!

What will happen is, on the Soviet turn, the Soviet Army improves back up to 2 steps in size and returns to Leningrad to fight another day; this process then repeats until one side cries “stop!,” and that is not unlikely to be the Soviets given what is at stake for them if they lose Leningrad. Therefore, Leningrad remains unlikely to fall to the Axis via direct attacks from across the Neva River. Consequently, the Axis must consider other options.


Option 2: A broader, two-pronged attack from Karelia and across the Neva River

If the Axis can concurrently attack from the Karelia Peninsula to Leningrad’s north or east (i.e., from hexes 8827, 8927, or 9027), they will negate the terrain shift for the Neva River and gain an additional hexside to attack through. However, getting into Karelia is a problem for the Axis in Thunder in the East. (In a combined game with ETO vol. IV: Northern Fire, Finnish units might be in a position to assist.)

Opening the Side Door: A unit in 9028 could attack northward to 9027 (they are connected!). However, this would be an attack across a Minor River and through a single hexside. (An auspicious time for such an attack might be during a bout of Extreme Cold weather then the River hexside freezes and the Axis can bring Air Support to bear.) Nevertheless, Axis Heavy units are not halved along this route, so they could muster as much as 28 attack strength (a Panzer Army stacked with a Panzer Division), facing what is likely to be only a single 4-5-4 army in an Improved defense position. At 5:1 odds, down two columns to 3:1 (for the River hexside and Improved position), hex 9027 likely could be taken by that Panzer Army plus Panzer Division. Even an Infantry Army launching a bold 3:2 odds attack before HQ and/or Air Support shifts weigh in might succeed and push into Karelia from this side door to Leningrad’s east.

Opening the Attic Window: The Axis’ other option in TITE is to push through Kronstadt (hex 8728). At the start of Barbarossa this is a relatively soft hex having only a Garrison unit and Improved Defense marker. By the start of Typhoon, however, these have been improved to a [3] Hardened Garrison with a <2 Improved Defense and, historically, the Coastal Rifle Infantry Corps (3-4 strength). Having 6 defense strength and three glorious defensive terrain shifts, two Axis Infantry Armies could concentrate to attack Kronstadt from hexes 8729 and 8828 at 3:2 odds. Again, committing HQ and Air Support shifts would likely push the odds high enough to cause a Soviet step loss (eliminating the Coastal Corps) thus making a second attack on the following turn that much easier.

Once substantial Axis units have moved into Karelia, taking Leningrad without the Neva River obstacle to consider becomes far more plausible. Three armies and some divisions can reach 40 attack strength, to face 8 defense strength (Hardened Garrison and 4-5-4 Rifle Army). These 5:1 raw odds reduce to 2:1 for the Fortified Defense in a Hard city, but a German HQ 2-shift hammer would improve that back to 4:1. Close support, even after offsetting the Soviet Fleet, could chip in another two or so shifts and push things to, perhaps, 6:1 odds. At those odds, there is roughly a 1/3 chance of taking Leningrad outright and 2/3 chance of eliminating its Rifle Army defenders (through step losses and/or Retreat). The Soviet player likely be unable to move another unit into Leningrad, which means pressing the attack again on the following turn could see three Axis armies reach odds of 12:1 or more and a comfortable 5/6 chance of taking Leningrad.


Option 3: A long siege after cutting Leningrad off and completely isolating it

Even with units on both sides of the Neva River, a lot of force is required to take Leningrad – much more than players (or Hitler, for that matter) ever allocate to this sector of the line. A sagacious Axis player must consider whether the several extra top-tier German Corps units required for a chance to take Leningrad are better used doing so or joining the drive toward Moscow or Rostov. There are reasons why starving Leningrad and postponing a direct attack against it for later seems like a good alternative.

As previously noted, when the Axis takes the Key Hex of 9028 they cut the RLoC to Leningrad and prevent movement of units across the ice road (the Strait to the north). Note however that Soviet units in Leningrad and Karelia are still In Communication under this circumstance! They could even be In Supply from a Soviet HQ in Volkhov or Tikhvin! If the Axis can press on and take hex 9128, the Axis would cut the Soviet’s OLoC and Isolate all Soviet units in the Leningrad area; at that point, the Soviets are in dire straits (forgive the pun).

Taking hex 9128, however, remains tricky; Axis Heavy units are halved attacking that Swamp hex. Yes, this means they are halved attacking either Hard City or Swamp hexes. However, two Infantry Armies with some extra Divisional support attacking from 9028 and 9129 (i.e., from the 1942 line positions) could reach 5:1 raw odds; 4:1 after terrain shift and, likely, 3:1 since that is an important hex where the Soviets are likely to establish an Improved Defense marker. Those odds alone are probably enough to take hex 9128 even before the inclusion of a German HQ in Attack Mode or Close Support (which would make things more certain for the Axis).

Capturing hex 9128 is the first critical step in successfully concluding a long siege of Leningrad. Once Axis units are ensconced in hex 9128, they merely need to wait; eventually, Isolation will eliminate Soviet units in Karelia. The [3] Hardened Garrison units are immune to Isolation effects, so Leningrad and Kronstadt will continue to be occupied. However, reduced to a lone 3 defense strength unit will not be enough to withstand a determined Axis attack despite enjoying three defensive shifts (Hard City, Fortified Defense) and a Close Support die from the Soviet Fleet. At that point, three or four German Corps can obtain raw odds of 5:1 or 6:1, reduced to 2:1 or 3:1. With Axis Close Support or an attacking HQ, adjusted odds of 4:1 or 5:1 are achievable giving the Axis a 2/3 chance of mopping up Leningrad’s last defenders.


Conclusion: How to Take Leningrad

Armchair generals note, the historical approach to the Axis problem of Leningrad is a reasonable one. A direct attack on Leningrad is unlikely to succeed and requires substantial force commitment to this sector. Instead, methodically cutting rail communication (in 9027) and then ice road communication (in 9128) completely isolates Leningrad and its defenders; after a few weeks or months, attrition rolls should take a sufficient toll and make Leningrad easier to capture on the cheap.


Part II: Attacking Leningrad Mechanically

The first part of this article discussed how Leningrad can fall to the Axis, recommending the strategy of a methodical advance from Pushkin to Volkhov followed by a pause to starve its defenders’ out, and finally an assault on its lone Hardened Garrison unit as the coup de grace to Leningrad itself. This second part looks at TITE and highlights what happens, under the rules, during the evolution of the threat to Leningrad.


TITE Fall of Pushkin

Fall of Pushkin (hex 8929)

When there is an Axis unit with a ZOC in 8929 (or 9028), Leningrad is covered by an EZOC and some restrictions apply:

  • Rule 15.4 -- Rail movement is blocked to/from or through Leningrad.
  • Rule 18.0 -- Leningrad is no longer an Air Base (rule 18.0).
  • The Soviet Construction Brigades card cannot Harden or Fortify Garrisons and Improved Defense markers in Leningrad (because it is in an EZOC).


Cutting Rail Lines of Communication (hex 9028)

Before taking Leningrad, the Axis player is almost certain to take hex 9028. This is the Key Hex for the RLoC to Leningrad, and cutting that RLoC has several important effects:

  • Rule 5.1 -- If the Axis unit in 9028 has a ZOC, then Soviet units cannot move across the Strait between 9027 and 9128 (i.e., transportation along the “ice road” is severed).
  • Rule 7.5.2 -- If there are Soviet units in 9027 and 9128 keeping the OLoC path to Leningrad unblocked then it remains In Communication. This means that all units and hexes in Karelia should be at least In Communication. Thus, they can:

o TITE Leningrad Key HexReceive Replacement Improvements (9.5)

o Receive Improved Defense markers (9.4)

o Early Mech Corps units there can disband for 1 EP each (15.1, remembering to replace them with a Mystery Meat Soviet Rifle Infantry Corps unit)

o Soviet units can demobilize for their PPs or EPs (203.2).

o With a Soviet HQ marker in Volkhov or Tikhvin, some units could be In Supply (7.5.1).

Hex 8928 is In Communication, although Leningrad city is not!

  • Rule 7.5.3 -- Leningrad is an Isolated City, thus it is not a supply source:

o It offers no NLoC to Tallinn, Narva, or Vyborg

o Nor an RLoC to Vyborg

o The Soviets cannot build new units cannot in Leningrad or the other cities (9.4)

o There could be Soviet Air Bases if they are not in EZOCs (18.0)

o Naval Transport from Leningrad is prohibited.

  • Rule 7.5.3 -- Any Soviet HQ marker in Leningrad is Isolated, and so involuntarily dissolves (10.2.2).
  • Rule 106.3 -- Soviet Baltic Fleet unit cannot move from its current port.
  • Rule 207.4 -- Leningrad Factory marker evacuates to Urals at start of next Axis turn (when Soviet supply is checked).
  • Soviet Construction Brigades card cannot Harden or Fortify Garrisons and Improved Defense markers in 9027 and 9128 (because they are in EZOCs).


Cutting Overland Lines of Communication (hex 9128)

TITE Leningrad cut offAs discussed in Part I, taking hex 9128 is critical for cutting the Soviets’ OLoCs into Karelia, and so Isolating and eventually eliminating the Soviet units in that area. Cutting this OLoC has these additional effects:

  • Rule 7.5.3 -- All units and hexes in Karelia should be Isolated.

o They cannot receive Replacement Improvements (9.5)

o They cannot receive Improved Defense markers (9.4)

o Units cannot be disbanded or demobilized for RPs (15.1, 203.2)

o An Attrition Roll must be made for each hex with Soviet units, although Hardened Garrisons are immune (27.1).

  • Rule 21.2 -- Even with Air Supply into 9027 or Leningrad (104.3), Soviet units cannot attack from 9027 into 9128 due to being halved twice, once for being Out of Supply and again for the Strait.


Fall of Leningrad (hex 8928)

After all other Soviet units have been starved out, Leningrad will still be defended by a [3] Hardened Garrison (see 27.1) and <2 Fortified Defense marker (see 27.2). The Axis will have to eliminate these the old fashioned way (via Battle).

Important note: There is an expanded rule 21.8 in the Errata regarding the degradation of Fortified Defense markers:

[21.8] WRECKED DEFENSES: Extended: Ground Combat and Overrun results also have the following effects on Defense markers in the Defender’s hex:

That’s All, Folks!: Any Defense marker is removed (i.e., returned to the stock) if the all the defending unit(s) in its hex are Eliminated (DE or BT) or successfully Overrun.

Removal: Immediately remove a hex’s <1 Improved Defense marker when its defenders suffer any step loss or Retreat result during a Ground Combat or Overrun. Improved Defense markers are fragile and require rebuilding.

Reduction: Immediately reduce a <2 Fortified Defense marker (i.e., flip it to its <1 Improved side) when its defenders suffer a DP, DR, DL result and a defending Ground unit still survives in that hex. This reduces the fortifications.


The capture of Leningrad (shown above) is a complex event, involving many sections of the rule book. Notable rules pertaining to this event include the following:


Standard Game Rules

  • Rule 22.0 [Capturing Objectives] -- Leningrad is marked with a -4 Countdown marker for its supply center and a -2 Countdown marker for its Naval Base. Place an Axis control marker on Leningrad (if that isn't obvious).
  • Scenario Book, Rule 7.3 [Blocked Naval LoCs] -- Unless using Optional Game rules, the Axis still cannot trace an NLoC into the Gulf of Finland.


Optional Game Rules

  • Part N [Naval Availability, before 106.0] -- When the Leningrad Naval Base is functioning for the Axis (nominally 2 turns after its capture), the Axis gain naval access to the Gulf of Finland. Axis NLoCs and Naval Transport can be projected into the Gulf of Finland for remainder of game.
  • Rule 106.3 [Fleet Evacuation] – The Soviet Baltic Fleet evacuates to Vyborg (if that city is still Soviet). Once both Leningrad and Vyborg fall, eliminate the Baltic Fleet. (Also see 209.1 when playing a Campaign Game.)


Campaign Game Rules

  • Rule 202.1 [Home Territory Objective Lost] -- Soviet morale suffers -8 MPs. Note that the adjustment is only +4 MPs if/when recaptured by the Soviets.
  • Rule 207.1 [Objective Cities] -- Place an Axis control marker on Leningrad’s Economic Map PP space. (Morale adjustment already covered by 202.1.)
  • Rule 207.2 [Personnel Cities] -- Remove Leningrad PP marker from Economic Map. If Leningrad is recaptured before -4 Countdown marker (from 22.0) is removed, place 2 PP marker on Economic Map at that time; otherwise, place 1 PP marker on Economic Map when recaptured.
  • Rule 207.4 [Factory Cities] -- The Leningrad factory already relocated to the Urals (when Isolated), so there should be no factory marker on Leningrad on the Economic Map and the Relocated marker will be on the Game Turn Track (or in Urals on Economic Map). Now that Leningrad is captured, place a Captured marker on the Leningrad factory space on the Economic Map; this flips to show its Retooling side next season and is replaced by an Integrated marker the following season. [As a mnemonic, I also place the Integrated marker on the Game Turn Track (in the box for the first month of the second full Season following capture).]
  • Rule 209.1 [Soviet Fleet Elimination] -- When the Baltic Fleet is eliminated under rule 106.3 (i.e., once both Leningrad and Vyborg are captured), reduce Soviet morale by -1 MP and roll a die; place the (reduced) fleet that many Seasons ahead on the Game Turn Track. When that Season arrives, check 209.1 to either place the Fleet into a recaptured Anchorage or permanently eliminate it.


Fall of Vyborg (hex 8726)

Vyborg is likely to be the last refuge of the Baltic Fleet. When the last refuge falls, rules 106.3 and 209.1 will apply.


Recapture

When Leningrad is recaptured by the Soviets, many of the same rules will apply. Countdown markers are -4 for supply and -2 for Naval Base (22.0), Soviet morale is +4 MPs (202.1), PP marker returns as 1 PP (or 2 PP if soon enough, 207.2), and the factory proceeds through Captured and Retooling to Restored (207.4).

It is a seminal event when Leningrad is under threat, besieged, or captured by the Axis invaders. With this article, you should have to tools to understand the operational aspects involved in a Leningrad campaign and know what is impacted, hex-by-hex and rule-by-rule as matters around Leningrad evolve.

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